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THIRD ENLARGED CATALOGUE OF THE 

SOLOMON R. GUGGENHEIM COLLECTION 
OF NON-OBJECTIVE PAINTINGS 



MARCH 7th UNTIL APRIL 17th, 1938 
GIBBES MEMORIAL ART GALLERY 
CHARLESTON, SOUTH CAROLINA 



LOAN EXHIBITION FROM THE 



SOLOMON R. GUGGENHEIM FOUNDATION 



NEW YORK 



Artists are listed aphabetically; paintings chronologically. 

Non-objective paintings are numbered 1 to 192. 

Drawings and paintings with objective departure are numbered from 193 
to 275. They represent typical impressionistic, expressionistic, cubistic 
and abstract works which led up to Non-objectivity. 

Titles have been translated as closely as possible. 

Non-objective paintings are frequently neither titled nor numbered by 
the artists. 

All Non-objective paintings have been reproduced. 

The dimensions of the paintings are given in inches — height by length. 

Biographies are listed after pictures. 



NON-OBJECTIVITY IS THE REALM OF SPIRIT 



VALUE OF NON-OBJECTIVITY 

Non-objective art is the cosmic sense, beautified by genius. Its lawful arrangement is 
the eternal rhythm that one perceives and feels, but cannot see. 

Non-objectivity is intuition made audible and visible. Its experience is the culmination of 
culture. It cannot be given. It must be acquired. Genius is born to it. Non-objective art in music 
and painting represents the spiritual height. Its beauty must be felt intuitively. This can be 
accomplished by anyone who loves the beauty of space, form, and color. In music, as well as 
in Non-objective painting, the intellectually conscious approach prevents spontaneous joy 
and a sensitive reaction to the wealth of creation. 

Spiritual growth is derived from living with these masterpieces. This experience comes, 
even to those, to whom their message was of no interest. With an increasing appreciation 
of their beauty, we subconsciously intensify the uplifting experience of developing a greater 
sensibility to improve our spiritually intuitive faculty. Intuitive guidance is superior to all 
intellectual self-advice. Therefore, intuition is humanity's outstanding capacity, which is de- 
nied to animal, who merely reacts to instinct, and knows neither conscious creativeness nor a 
realization of beauty. Naturally it is difficult to acknowledge a spiritual experience unless one 
has gone through its development. New points of view cannot be shared; they have to be 
reached by one's own effort. Those who have accomplished this understand each other with- 
out explanation. 

A painted copy of nature, no matter how charming the texture or interesting the style, 
is not a real creation. The urge to satisfy the intuitive temperament by developing its crea- 
tive capacity is due to the superior guidance of spiritual leadership to which sensitive people 
respond. This resulted in the discovery of real creation in painting. Why should one use ob- 
jective inspiration or intellectual memory of subject to start a painting? 

The charm of objects and mental stimulation through their representation has faded away. 
The purity of space on a virgin white canvas is already ruined by an objective beginning. 
The pretense of a third dimension is inorganic with the two flat dimensions of the canvas. 
Ability to feel refinement in this pure white given space is the first start towards the Non- 
objective picture. Why not use this basic feeling of space given between the four sides of 
paper or canvas, and bring it to life in a concentric organization with rhythm of form, themes 
of new invention, and motives of inner relationships? Why not arrange colors for their sheer 
beauty and their balanced harmony? Why not use forms for their intricate possibilities of 
inventions and combinations? Why not make the intuitive sense of creation as visible as music 
makes it audible? These problems occurred and delighted artists. Their concentrated accumu- 
lation of artistic temperament found a new but necessary outlet in a moment of intense need 
to forget earth and get in touch with cosmic order in contrast perhaps to earthly insanity. 
Many artists, twenty and thirty years ago, found this method of expression all by themselves 
in many parts of the world. When they met or heard of each other, a big movement had 
started, and with it the century of rhythmic balance. 

We are merely tunnels through which the spiritual wave must pass. All we can do is to 
refine and perfect this wave and keep the body receptive and sensitive. Through our con- 
centration for responsive reaction we will increase its power. It is destiny that new tasks 
must be fulfilled. 

Intuition matters primarily in helping us to master life. It indicates and encourages new 
roads to success. Non-objective paintings develop this primary force, which representative 



pictures cannot do. By following the vocation of our intuitive conscience, we develop our 
destiny. The goal of organic guidance is beyond our control. Spiritual development comes 
to those who feel and follow in dutiful honesty humanity's faculty for spiritual life. This life 
leads safely to our pre-ordained destination, whose practical outcome can offer a thrilling 
surprise. It may lead to a lonely peak, yet organic developments assure safety; besides, it is 
a peak of joy. New methods of expression require a great sense of responsibility and 
naturally often bring attacks, as progress and development always has had and always will 
have opponents. 

Progress necessitates the discarding of acquired accomplishments no longer suitable. 
Constant striving towards new goals, almost too hard to conquer, often brings desperation 
to artists before any satisfaction can evolve. The one goal, which perhaps always may be 
too hard for most of them, is perfection in Non-objective art. Thousands are struggling for 
it. A powerful conscience enables real artists to realize their own short-comings as they are 
able to acknowledge the quality of their more or less perfected tasks and admire the sub- 
lime achievement of a masterpiece in the work of a genius. 

Of course there are always admirers for anything one does; but they mean nothing to 
an artistic conscience, which knowing better, cannot be deceived. Therefore, conscience is 
of primary value to any serious artist. Just because painting is an easy field in which to 
cheat one's self or the trusting layman in many ways, there is no excuse for it, especially when 
the public has to deal with it. This cheating is done in painting, not merely through poor 
materials, but most often through the work itself. Those soft shadings, easy get-offs of in- 
decision so readily used, seem lovely. In reality they are only a blind for lack of knowledge 
of workmanship on the part of the painter. When a master shades, there is no indecision. 
He indicates such strong foundation with each brush stroke, which, casual though it may be, 
shows the experience and power of an expert to those who are capable of judging. Unless 
the apparent subtlety has strength through knowledge of design and construction in ad- 
vanced artistic expressions, an honest copy of nature in a good academic style is preferable 
to the confusion in a poor impressionistic or expressionistic one. The inability of a painter 
who copies nature is naturally more obvious in an academic picture, for it is easy to be 
compared with nature's pattern. Yet, the greater freedom of the impressionistic picture, even 
in a weak example, constitutes a more courageous step towards the goal of free creation 
than in any academic copy of nature. This is true of expressionism, cubism, and is still truer 
of abstraction. The word abstraction is usually mis-applied when non-representative pictures 
are meant. Unless they lose their identity, the most perfected artistic forms, square, circle, 
and triangle in Non-objective art cannot be abstracted. The absolute forms, circle, cube, 
and triangle would lose their whole existence if changed by any abstraction. The abstract 
picture is always started with an object, while the absolute, Non-objective picture contains 
none. This is the very important distinction between the abstract and absolute form problems. 
Here are briefly the few essential isms which developed objectivity into Non-objectivity. 

Academism: In the academic painting objects are represented realistically, almost as 
true to nature's pattern as in photography, using light and shadow and perspective to 
create a third but fake dimension. Perspective is an easily acquired accomplishment, yet 
greatly admired by the inexperienced layman though it can be taught in one lesson to anyone. 

Impressionism: The impressionistic picture indicates merely the painter's casual impression 
of objects and often sketches moving action of nature's happenings. While the academic 





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RUDOLF BAUER, No. 44, No. 45, No. 46, No. 47, "TETRAPTYCHON" Symphony in four movements. 



painter paints one view of all he sees the impressionist combines several visual impressions 
of his choice into one unit. 

Expressionism: The expressionistic picture emphasizes certain lines or forms which in the 
artists' opinion increase the strength of his most essential conception of nature and indicates 
his choice in the expressive essentials to reproduce the interesting characteristics of an object. 

Cubism : The cubistic picture still shades with light and dark and uses sometimes the decep- 
tion of a third dimension in perspective to create an objective organization with cubistic forms. 

Abstraction: The abstract picture abstracts the object to its last constructive part but dis- 
cards perspective, while light and darkness are used as tonal qualities only. 

All these isms derive their inspiration from an objective start, and build up from it more 
or less interesting form problems. Development from academic painting to abstraction of ob- 
jects leads to the visionary art: 

Non-objectivity.- the Non-objective picture stands by itself as an entirely free creation, 
conceived out of the intuitive enjoyment of space. It is the visual essence of rhythmic balance 
in form, design, and color. Secondary to the creation of theme, forms, and motifs are the 
combinations and shades of color and tone-values in Non-objective painting. The Non-ob- 
jective picture is far superior to all others in its influential potentiality, educational power, 
and spiritual value to humanity. 

To feel the beauty of art, the layman does not have to know the classifications of the 
different isms in painting which paved the way to Non-objectivity, as this is only an historical 
development. To enjoy flying an aeroplane, no one needs to know about development of 
transportation from horse to steam and motorpower. 

Anyone having the chance to live with the highest type of non-representational art gets 
bored, in the end, with objective pictures and cannot endure living with them any more. 
This is not only the experience of artists, but the statement of unwilling laymen, who could 
not at first see any value in Non-objective art, but once having lived with it, changed their 
opinion. This is undoubtedly due to the subconscious education which these influential pic- 
tures distribute, if they are really masterpieces and not just mechanical decorations, or sym- 
metrical patterns, but organizations of creative power accomplished by very few artists. 

Non-objective creation in painting, like in music, has nothing to do with the reproduction 
of nature, or the interpretation of intellectual meanings. Whoever is able to feel the beauty 
of colors and forms has understood Non-objective painting. 




RUDOLF BAUER, No. 63, No. 64, No. 65, "TRIPTYCH" Symphony in three movements. 



Art is international and timeless. It stimulates intuition and trains the acquisition of spiritual 
balance and order. It conveys no meaning and therefore its value can be felt by everyone, 
regardless of race and language. Lacking this, poetry is not art. The rhythm of English poetry 
to a Chinese conveys no music and the words lose for him even their intellectual mean- 
ing. It is a token of intellectual refinement, like philosophy or geometry, which also cannot be 
felt nor understood by all. Poetry, as Confucius remarked, "encourages social intercourse, 
stimulates the intellectual mind, trains observation, acquaints with names of objects and sub- 
jects, modifies the vexation of life, and teaches duty and idealistic thoughts." Yet poetry can- 
not influence or develop intuition, which art does. 

The contemplation of a Non-objective picture offers a complete rest to the mind. It is 
particularly beneficial to business men, as it carries them away from the tiresome rush of 
earth, and strengthens their nerves, once they are familiar with this real art. If they lift their 
eyes to these pictures in a tired moment, their attention will be absorbed in a joyful 
way, thus resting their minds from earthly troubles and thoughts. Experience and knowl- 
edge of the inner creative law in these paintings is necessary only to artists and those who 
want to use the fundamentals of creations to become themselves creators of art. Nor is it 
necessary for a layman to realize the construction of these paintings and study their basic 
lawfulness in order to feel pleasure in Non-objective masterpieces. 

The general response to the themes and keys of color in different Non-objective paint- 
ings is of as similar variety as our reaction to different melodies, keys, and rhythms in music. 
Upon further acquaintance, the appeal of these masterpieces to anyone increases and grows 
into animated enjoyment. It is important to realize that it is not the enjoyment which the 
layman derives from great art that accounts for its greatest importance, but the influence 
of art on public development. The variety of objects in representative painting brings en- 
joyment, entertainment, even treasured memories, yet this is just as true of photography. 
Beautiful photographs can stand next to almost any objective reproduction in painting. Both 
emphasize earthly inspirations and pleasure through the medium of memory. But this pleasure 
has no public educational value. It is entirely the private affair of individuals. 

Pleasure through objects cannot develop spiritual progress. Since the caveman era, some 
fifty thousand years ago, the human eye has been accustomed to the cherished fiction — 
reality as expression in painting. The Art of visual Beauty, exalted and pure, great and deep 



in value, has now been found. This is causing the greatest spiritual progress known to man 
and causes the development of intuition instead of intellect as the future goal of education. 

Study of realistic reproduction educates the eye and hand and develops the technique of 
design and the handicraft of painting, at the same time evolving a concentrated observation 
for surroundings. Representative painting can instruct about former periods and history. 
Though extremely useful, this is not developing any higher spiritual faculties. To enjoy Non- 
objective painting develops rare spiritual powers, and a higher standard, because the realm 
of these creations is unearthly. Subconsciously, Non-objective pictures educate those who 
are, even if unwillingly, exposed to their companionship for a longer period of time. The 
spiritual control which created them seems to spread like electricity from them to those who 
are gifted to receive it. Yet, these paintings develop such a receptive faculty in almost everyone. 

The important progress for the nations of the world is humanity's education towards spir- 
itual control; the realization of the infinite rhythm; the reaction to safer cosmic guidance; the 
development of courage to follow our higher vocation and the ability to rule and harmonize 
in our relationships with others; the faculty to be creative in our actions and thoughts; and to 
increase rhythmic balance and, with it, happiness. Those who oppose Non-objectivity have 
not as yet experienced its uplifting wealth. 

Painters, who find the courage and have the faculty of giving up the acquired accom- 
plishment of representative painting, for so long acknowledged as great art, to try new and 
more difficult tasks, understand that this urge is beyond all will or wishes. Development to 
higher culture comes to those who recognize intellectual will power as inferior to intuitive 
response. Humanity's former education for the untold amount of mental contradictions of 
intellect handicapped our highest sense of cosmic, rhythmic intuition, and initiation in the 
eternal balance of order. This education can and will be accomplished through the eyes, 
our finest, highest, most sensitive, almost spiritual organ, which can become visionary to 
creation instead of a mere information-agent. The eye is constantly preoccupied with taking in 
objective facts. Being a receiving station for information, it naturally acts primarily on the 
intellect. Accustomed to follow its directions while ignoring all aptitude for spiritual vision, 
the eye was inwardly blind. Intellect had to become satiated by visual sensation before 
the urge for visionary enjoyment could develop. 

The faculty of sight is our greatest gift. The eye is the primary inlet and outlet of the spirit. 
The eye does more than see. It speaks, laughs, and weeps. It confesses confidence or sincer- 
ity, mistrust and falsehood. It can hypnotize and transfer thoughts, give signs in many ways, 
and yet can voluntarily refuse to do anything by merely closing its lid. The eye is therefore a 
superior organ to the ear, with its sole faculty of hearing. The ear has no capacity for self- 
expression, nor can it voluntarily react for self-protection. It has to accept sound regardless of 
its agreeability. The sensitive, multi-gifted eye, which expresses and receives, is far closer to 
our spontaneous spirit than the unprotected ear. That is why the composition of sound for 
beauty's sake could be developed so much sooner to an artistic height. There was far more 
to educate in the complicated eye, to overcome its primary reaction to intellectual command 
and experience and to develop its spiritual faculty for organizing and realizing visual com- 
position. Therefore, music could naturally reach a high standard of spirituality centuries 
earlier than painting. It took little culture and a very long period of minor development since 
the caveman, to reproduce with artistic perfection and to bring about such culture as the 
faculty for visual creation, which is needed for the present achievement in painting. Already 

8 



Leonardo da Vinci, in his "tractat on painting" stated that the art of painting is superior to the 
art of music. A sound of music, once emitted, is gone forever. Few are sufficiently gifted to 
memorize each tone, produced in the succession of many. We all know that even the best 
music may become disturbing. The timeless quietness in a painting surpasses sound in music 
for this reason also. Day and night follow each other soundlessly. Earth turns and creation 
occurs in perfect quiet. The timeless silence of visual creations emphasizes their cosmic superi- 
ority to creations of sound. Furthermore, a creation of painting is final, while music is subject 
to change, even distortion, when produced. Noiseless, timeless, and final in its creation, Non- 
objective painting is the highest art. 

The intuitive enjoyment of spiritual Non-objective beauty in vision can be felt mostly by 
those to whom objects of reality have already become boring. This has happened chiefly 
because the reproduction of things is being taken care of by photography to abundant, even 
artistic perfection. Exhausted by the needlessness of objective painting and realistic repro- 
duction of nature, a few genial, prophetic artists discarded their intellectual knowledge and 
accomplishment of imitating nature, in order to develop their intuitive vision of creation and 
test new form problems. 

They discovered eternal beauty and highly educational, joyful, everlasting faculties in un- 
worldly, entirely unforseen organizations of color, form, and space composition. Modern 
architecture, decoration, all handicrafts, and advertisements today thrive on their discoveries. 
The simplicity of style, refinement, elegance, and cheerfulness, which is the original expression 
of our present epoch, had its origin in the daring works of great painters, often ridiculed and 
misunderstood, some of whom died in utmost poverty fifty years ago. 

To some people, absolute forms and color motives may seem as easy to create as produc- 
ing sounds by merely touching the keyboard of a piano, which any child can do. But, as 
neither sounds nor keyboard create sonatas or fugues, so mere consorting of colors or forms 
cannot create a masterpiece. Non-objective masterpieces are never mechanical decorations 
or geometrically symmetrical patterns. Pure forms like triangle, square, and circle are used for 
their own beauty in shape, and combined with balance of space interval to such perfection 
that spiritual life is originated to elevate our minds beyond earthly reminiscence. Creation of 
spiritual life is their essential message. This life is missing in earthly reproductions and also in 
abstractions of nature. It is for this reason that abstractions are of no interest to the Solomon 
R. Guggenheim Foundation. 

It is evident when a scientist for instance has already discovered the solution of a prob- 
lem that other scientists would not expect to be further subsidized to discover it. Thus the 
academic, impressionistic, expressionistic, cubistic, or abstract painters are no more the essen- 
tial builders of their time, whom the Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation could subsidize. 

The reason why sculpture is not, and never will be, included in the Solomon R. Guggen- 
heim Collection is that sculpture is dependent, in its creation, on the problem of it's material 
weight and is therefore inferior to the art of painting. 

While the boundaries of a painting depend on. the artist's choice, these controlled bound- 
aries decide the rhythmic volume of space with which the painter creates. The sculptor cannot 
control the volume of space which surrounds his plastic work nor influence the accident of 
shadow and light which changes its aspect even in artificial light, when the plastic is moved. 
Nor can he avoid the weight problem which demands a solid concrete base and, with it, an 
entirely inartistic foundation on which to erect his organization. He, therefore, is always 



primarily bound to an earthly law because his creation must be safely adjusted to the mate- 
rialistic base. 

This earthly necessity of a useful basis is objective. As sculpture cannot grow from its own 
independent concentric law, its content therefore lacks the immaterialistic freedom of life in 
rhythm, so necessary to express unearthly spirituality of intuitive creation. 

Neither does this Foundation believe in encouraging weak talents or developing the 
mediocrity of faint possibilities in most studies. Too little is done to strengthen the strong 
ones, geniuses, rare, powerful beings, who create and mark their time. Being as cruel to 
themselves as to others, they usually have few friends, while submitting themselves to the 
rigid discipline of the most difficult tasks, refusing to worship anything but their ideal, which is 
usually misunderstood, disbelieved, and often ridiculed. Obligation to the urge of their con- 
science is all that matters to them. With uncanny wisdom, the genius is his own critic, and 
so far advanced that only those next to him in development usually realize his importance. 
That is why art dealers and museum directors, who mostly all deal in or conserve the acknowl- 
edged, so far never have been interested in, or capable of, discovering a genius. Genius 
needs the attention of honest, expert comrades and their unselfish help in its strife for progress. 

Most painters want to make their living through artistic work which they like best; they 
expect to sell whether they are masters or not; they hope to improve by letting others pay 
for their progress; yet the public is made to feel that it is getting masterpieces. Such mislead- 
ing should not exist. Out of respect for great art, painters, especially Non-objective ones, 
should not try to sell weak, immature products. Perfection alone can bring lasting joy. Weak 
pictures mislead whereas perfected ones guide. For those who are not yet masters, while try- 
ing to reach perfection, courage, character and sacrifice are required to refrain from public 
showing. It is better to do double work, one for living, one for art's sake, for instance by 
becoming a carpenter or clerk than to cheat with a mediocre output. In the interest of the 
public, difficulties hinder genius' efficiency. Yet, they strengthen or discourage the weak talent 
and are therefore a blessing to all. Anyone can study for two or three hours every morning 
and still do other work for a livelihood, if he goes to sleep at dusk. Awakening clear-headed 
to the peace of a fresh morning, he thus gains 600 hours a year, which can do wonders to 
improve anyone who considers art to be his unachieved goal. 

A great master's outstanding peculiarity is his almost uncanny devotion to the urge of 
conscience for perfection. Genius responds with brutality to any interference. His life is a 
sacrifice to this all-demanding strife for perfection to order intuitive invention. Concentra- 
tion and powerful vision towards higher goals educate his capacity to see and overcome 
limitations. His sensitive reaction to spiritual obligations allows nothing to interfere with the 
growth of those faculties with which a genius expresses himself so beautifully. 

His conscience forbids self-satisfaction and urges him on to greater tasks. No one's 
opinion matters. No one's criticism is needed, be it good or bad. An intuitive genius' capac- 
ity for self-criticism is far advanced in resource, efficiency, power, and vision. Therefore he is 
much harder to satisfy than any onlooker's good or bad opinion. A genius is given, within 
himself, a leadership which cannot be equalled by ordinary mortals, who usually must 
develop until they can appreciate the importance of his leadership. Age, which generally 
brings decline of strength, to genius gives the increase of spiritual power. 

A great painter paints only when intuition forces him to do so. He has the self-control to 
wait for intuition; but his ability to paint will never induce him to do so solely for the enjoy- 

10 



merit of painting. When the perfection of a phase has been accomplished, he does not revel 
in satisfaction, nor does he duplicate, or commercialize the already accomplished. A genius 
sets out at once to conquer another goal, by solving new difficulties. In order to widen his 
range of experience, he faces the terrific stress of anxiety, risking dangerous failures until 
the new problem is solved. Each creative Non-objective masterpiece is a new problem never 
solved before to create artistic intuitive order and different beauty. 

Creations of perfection and power are extremely rare, the creative moments of a genius 
are not constantly at his beck and call. He must have the discipline to wait for intuitive 
assurance. For this reason his need for concentration requires solitude. This is the only help 
a genius needs, but who gives it to him? The nation never, seldom anyone, yet disabled and 
feeble-minded and even criminals are supported often by taxes which a genius, if he has 
any income, is forced to pay. This way, he is being punished for the upkeep of the most 
unworthy of human derelicts, instead of receiving help in order to increase the range of his 
work and to become the pride of a nation. Often a genius is starved, rushed, handicapped, 
and hindered in every way. 

In this respect, the Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation wishes to be essentially useful. 
Here Solomon R. Guggenheim, a man with tremendous foresight, has come forward. Years 
ago, doubted and misunderstood by almost everyone, he followed his own guidance and 
helped great Non-objective masters to work quietly, so that they could produce the wealth 
of their outstanding contributions to this important century. Being somewhat of a genius 
himself, Mr. Guggenheim was able to visualize the value which these masters had to offer. 
Ordinary intellectual ability has no such vision. Only intuition can create such leadership. 
Outstanding leaders and geniuses are born to this faculty. They develop themselves. Crea- 
tions of genius cannot be made by teaching, yet the intuitive sense in all humans can be so 
developed that at least they all may learn to guide themselves to a sensible life. 

It is spirit, cosmic order, and creation of beauty which originates the work of art. Seeing 
a circle does not imply sensation or memory of any known meaning or happening. The 
circle does not stand as a symbol for some material object, or subjective thought. It is simply 
a perfect form with beauty of shape, as realized in the appearance of the sun and moon, fifty 
thousands years ago, by cavemen, who certainly had never heard of geometry. Geometry 
uses some artistic forms for its intellectual descriptions, but creates no organizations of beauty 
with these artistic forms. Non-objective art, therefore, is not geometrical, nor is geometry art. 

The three basic forms of absolute beauty: square, triangle, circle, offer manifold possi- 
bilities as tools of creation. The circle is a self-centered continuity in itself, isolated and float- 
ing in its own concentration. Its rhythm is not influenced from within nor without. The square 
has eight sides, four within and four without. It gives and receives space and also points 
by means of its corners in further directions. The square, compared to the circle, is a more 
powerful form of relationship in space. The triangle directs its points from an indifferent base, 
but it is the only basic form submittable to variation of its dimensions without losing its identity 
or absolute form. 

Fidelity to the materialistic world seems very wonderful to many who consider it the 
sum total of art and believe that almost anyone can make circles and cubes. But these basic 
forms, like the keyboard of a piano, are to be used only as mediums for creating spiritual 
values and for conveying the uplifting, rigorous beauty of measure and line. 

11 



Perfection of form and its inventive motifs are more difficult to create than the charm and 
beauty of color. Form is far more important as a definite basic value than color's less essential 
manifold variations. Rhythm is the relationship between space and forms. Creation of Non- 
objective art is so definitely lawful that even accident of charm is impossible and contrary to 
the concentrated order which is the foundation of creative painting. Many painters delight in 
this accidental charm which often develops unintentionally while painting. A masterpiece elimi- 
nates such accidents and follows spiritual control only. The more technique is subdued to 
the spirit, the more conscious charm of individual style is eliminated, the more dramatically 
strong will be the language of the painting. In Non-objective art, some painters conceal their 
lack of austere conception with a brilliant display of colorful charm. Instead of growing, this 
charm fades through its lack of organized control. The perfection of a great masterpiece 
must be so spiritual that it will seem beyond all technical efficiency in its extreme finality and 
apparent simplicity. 

The creative picture advocates spirituality of the rhythmically moving form-ideal of our 
age. It has no meaning and is simply a manifestation of beauty. The eye moves from theme 
to theme and enjoys form and colors in their varied relationships and combinations. Old 
fashioned painting advocates the intellectuality of the immovable form-ideal. Thus the entire 
picture and its intellectual meaning is realized once and forever. From whatever angle one 
sees the picture, it leads to the same objective statement and soon becomes uninteresting 
while the Non-objective painting becomes more interesting the longer it is seen from its dif- 
ferent angles. 

The love for objective painting is only the personal affair of private individuals' taste. It 
is of no importance to the world's progress what object a painter chooses for a represen- 
tative picture, or whether that representation later appeals to others. They are merely dealing 
with earthly inspirations and materialistic likes and dislikes of no educational value, unable 
to further a spiritual development or constant joy. The Non-objective picture is of world 
importance due to its educational faculty. It has the importance of world vision, compared 
to the irrelevance of earthly viewpoints. The sensation of the object has outlived itself. Peoples' 
minds are tired of reality, brought to them confusedly and without effort. There is no rest unless 
we lift our eyes to the sky whose purity and endlessness demand no explanation from our 
harassed intellect. The child of this century is bored by representations, unless they move 
constantly, changing with unexpected thrills, as offered by the motion pictures. Represen- 
tative painting formerly was necessary to offer to the earthly intellect views of lovely situations 
with design, light, shadow, and color. All this now is given by photographs and colorprints, 
while in addition, the cinema offers the nearest perfection for representing natural life in fic- 
tion and motion. Due to nature's everlasting change of light, color, movement, and form, 
the painter who tries to catch its charm, gets restless in his anxious hunt for original motives. 
Thus he always evades the blessing of nature's serenity and peace, which would strengthen 
the benefit of refreshing his sensitive capacity. The painter of Non-objectivity receives this 
benefit, as he is free from this constantly erratic strife for new patterns from nature, enforced 
by the reproductive urge and open to receive the relaxing influence of nature's peace. 

Radio, newspapers, telephone, and telegraph have given people close knowledge of each 
other. These mediums have brought the nations into closer contact with each other and also 
with by-gone periods. Realistic painting became less necessary because today, through the 
medium of photography, we know all about the Greek, Egyptian, Gothic, Roman, Renaissance, 

12 



Louis XV, Louis XVI, Colonial, Victorian periods. In all of these periods, columns and acanthus 
leaves derived from the Greek, were used somewhere for ornamental reasons and only today 
are discarded at last. Yet even the differentiations of these periods were not created by 
antique-chasing individuals who today entirely miss the glory of their own period. Where 
would Radio City be had not the daring painters, already thirty and forty years ago, been 
the first to start new form-ideals and problems in their cubistic and Non-objective paintings. 

Through stage-settings, especially in the movies, the refined style of today, with its sim- 
plicity, begins to spread everywhere, even into the remotest parts of the earth. It is the only 
style suitable to the necessity for hygienic cleanliness and practicability. Modern materials like 
steel, bakelite, rubber, chromium, glass bricks, linoleum, concrete, are now employed usefully 
without the necessity of borrowing the ancient form-ideals and ornaments, originated in his- 
toric eras for lesser needs. 

Joyous and courageous today, we create instead of borrowing. Space, line and meas- 
urement are used for their own beauty. But let us not forget that the progress to this refined 
simplicity was started by painters. They were the daring personalities, whose conscience 
did not allow them to rest on old laurels and get stale doing things done well enough long 
ago. When the past had no more "raison d'etre" because of new materials and new civiliza- 
tions, our own style became imminent. Now the pioneer work of these painters has sud- 
denly become generally useful. 

Non-objectivity will be useful to a big, daring, far-sighted period, whose range is now 
far-reaching while at its height; but it is only in descending from this height that it will be 
easily assimilated by the masses. This will be done. 

If we do our share, we start new tasks, achieving significant results, and a stimulation to 
all, which is wonderfully essential to those who come after. They will perhaps go on to 
dare new heights of spiritual expression. But we have reached the height in painting. Heights 
in art never duplicate themselves. Such powerful musical geniuses as Bach and Beethoven 
have never appeared since, nor is it likely that Kandinsky or Bauer, these two geniuses of 
painting, will reappear. The greatness to overthrow a long acclaimed past necessitates crea- 
tive genius. 

Kandinsky and Bauer are already referred to by some people as Classics, which in their 
opinion means finished in regard to vital influence. They profess this in the hope of making 
way for inferior artists by whom importance cannot be gained through creative capacity. So, 
to attract attention and short-lived sensation, new titles are invented, thus giving birth to 
untold, senseless, unnecessary isms, which only serve to confuse the public and disturb its con- 
fidence in the greatest epoch which painting ever has had. 

We know how quickly fashionable Rossini's easy fame blinded the public to Beethoven's 
genius, and how this became instrumental in impoverishing the last decade of that great 
master's life. Yet, masterpieces last far beyond the futile fame of easy, charming, passing 
fads. Surrealists and other vague intellectual criminals in art, who try to hide their impotency 
for purely intuitive creation, which they have all tried but failed, behind a mask of sensational 
bluff, cannot confuse laymen forever. Also Picasso, the hasty producer of other painters' 
inspirations, has nothing to offer in lasting value of spiritual content. He is essentially useful 
only to commerce in its constant need of mass production. The journalistic ease of his tech- 
nique can only satisfy as long as lack of content and organic development will last in any 
sensational, superficial output. Masterpieces are beyond such crude efforts with which an 

13 



African temperament tries in vain to offset the order of spirit and culture. Only for historical 
reasons was Picasso included in this collection, with some of his few existing Non-objective 
paintings, to show how much more in comparison to him, the great masters have to say. 

Now, great masterpieces are being made public by the Solomon R. Guggenheim Founda- 
tion. They speak the language of eternity. Presentation brings to them the attention and 
influence they so rightly deserve. The Guggenheim Collection presents the height in crea- 
tive art. The stronghold of its originals is purity and quality and variety. The world importance 
lies in their power to promote education, in teaching the experience of spiritual power 
through intuitive force on whose rule infinity depends. There would be no infinity if stars, 
sun, moon, forms, and space began to think individually, instead of following the cosmic lawful 
rhythm of their organizations depending on intuitive order. Intuitive power will spread and 
succeed, where religions failed to stop murder and brutality, in creating understanding and 
consideration of others, between human beings. 

The rare art collection of the Foundation creates a center of spiritual power. With it, a 
precious, priceless, non-commercial, and distinctive nucleus of influential masterpieces is start- 
ing the new art center of the world. It is to be a quiet, peaceful, elevating sanctuary for those 
who need a cultural life, and those who, by its influence, will become leaders of the future. 

The American nation, with her great sense for qualified efficiency, could not thrive on 
the laurels gathered long ago for the lesser needs of past epochs. This youth of America 
has courage and decision. It is proclaiming without doubt or fear its loving interest in Non- 
objective art. This acclaim proves the need, love, capacity for intuitive sense in this youth. 
This alone matters. It creates a future generation to be proud of. For the spiritual welfare of 
these young people, the Foundation's work is being done as quietly and as earnestly as 
possible, to serve this youth of importance and safeguard for them a treasure which might 
otherwise have been lost. Without Solomon R. Guggenheim, some of these great master- 
pieces of the highest genial expression in painting which has ever been known, might not 
even have been created. This makes him one of the greatest art Maecenas in history, consider- 
ing the artistic capacity, the courage, and far-seeing intuition required by a layman to realize 
the lasting value in such creations before it had been historically acclaimed, and it is espe- 
cially remarkable in a man who owns valuable collections of paintings from past centuries 
to proclaim the Non-objective ideal. 

We remember very little about past epochs beyond their accomplishments in culture. If 
we want to be remembered in the future, we must create a much greater culture. This culture 
must achieve the same marvelous height which civilizations have already reached. Culture 
alone can stop the murderous war of the future, and keep up the courageous daring in 
fields far loftier than those of battles. 

If we acquire more culture than ever before, it will not be due to science, philosophy, 
poetry, painted copies of nature, or a civilization perfected in earthly conveniences, but to an 
education of intuitive capacity and such spiritual power which the world has never known 
before. Non-objective art alone can develop it— THIS IS ITS GREAT VALUE. 

HILLA REBAY 



14 



1 RUDOLF BAUER 

Presto (1917-1922) 

Oil on canvas. 59 x 78y 2 




2 RUDOLF BAUER 

Allegro (1920) 

Watercolor and tempera. 9 x 11% 

Rebay collection 




3 RUDOLF BAUER 
Andante (1920) 
Watercolor. 12x9/2 
Rebay collection 




4 RUDOLF BAUER 
Funebre (1920) 
Watercolor. 10'/ 2 x 9/2 
Rebay collection 




5 RUDOLF BAUER 
Allegretto (1921) 
Watercolor. 9 x 7V 2 
Rebay collection 




15 



SUV) 



- 



6 RUDOLF BAUER 

Scherzo (1921) 

Watercolor. 8 x 13 

Rebay collection 




7 RUDOLF BAUER 

Allegro (1921) 

Watercolor. 8x13 

Rebay collection 






5t 



- 






'J< 



. &?\- 



8 RUDOLF BAUER 
Allegretto (1921) 

Watercolor. 8 x 13 
Rebay collection 



• "• 




9 RUDOLF BAUER 

Largo (1922) 

Watercolor. 8x13 

Rebay collection 




10 RUDOLF BAUER 

Allegro (1922) 

Watercolor. 17x11 

Rebay collection 



16 



11 RUDOLF BAUER 
Scherzo (1923) 
Watercolor. 19y 2 xl2 







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12 RUDOLF BAUER 

Con Brio (1923) 

Watercolor, tempera and Chinese ink. 19% x 12% 

Rebay collection 







i 



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13 RUDOLF BAUER 
Andante (1923) 
Pastel. 18% xl2y 2 




17 




14 RUDOLF BAUER 

Serioso (1923) 

Pastel. 12y 2 x 9V 2 




15 RUDOLF BAUER 

Allegretto (1923) 

Pastel. 12 x 9 




16 RUDOLF BAUER 

Allegro (1923) 

Pastel. 19% x 12y 2 



18 



17 RUDOLF BAUER 

Presto (1923) 

Oil on canvas. 37 x 43 1 /; 




18 RUDOLF BAUER (1923) Scherzo 
Watercolor, tempera and Chinese ink. 14% x 10% 
Rebay collection 

19 RUDOLF BAUER 
White Fugue (1923-1927) 
Oil on canvas. 52% x 76^/^ 




SEE PLATE ON PAGE 109 



20 RUDOLF BAUER 
Scherzo (1923) 
Pastel 20x14% 



21 RUDOLF BAUER 

Largo (1923) 

Watercolor, tempera and Chinese ink. 9% x 12 

Rebay collection 




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22 RUDOLF BAUER 

Dainty (1923) 

Pastel 18 x 11% 

Rebay collection 



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23 RUDOLF BAUER 

Cheerful (1924) 

Watercolor, tempera and Chinese ink. 8/s x 12% 

Rebay collection 




24 RUDOLF BAUER 

Contrast (1924) 

Oil on canvas. 35% x 28 



25 RUDOLF BAUER 

Allegro. (1925) 

Watercolor. 24 x 20 



20 



26 RUDOLF BAUER 

Rhythm (1924) 

Watercolor, tempera and Chinese ink. 19% x 12% 

Rebay collection 




27 RUDOLF BAUER 
Improvisation (1924) 
Watercolor. 8 x 13 
Rebay collection 




28 RUDOLF BAUER 

Power (1924) 

Watercolor, tempera and Chinese ink. 18/8 x 11% 

Rebay collection 




21 



SEE PLATE ON PAGE 117 



29 RUDOLF BAUER 

Lyrical Picture (1924-1925) 

Oil on canvas. 33y 2 x 39% 




30 RUDOLF BAUER 

Largo (1925) 

Watercolor and tempera. 12% x 9 




31 RUDOLF BAUER 

Scherzo (1925) 

Watercolor, and Chinese ink. 20 5 / 8 x 14% 




32 RUDOLF BAUER 

Larghetto (1925) 
Watercolor, tempera and Chinese ink. 17% x 12y 2 



22 



33 RUDOLF BAUER 
Lifted (1925) 

Watercolor. 18% x 1iy 2 
Rebay collection 




^ 



34 RUDOLF BAUER 

Happy (1925) 

Watercolor and tempera. UYb x 12V2 

Rebay collection 




35 RUDOLF BAUER 

Presto (1926) 

Watercolor and tempera. 19% x 12% 

Rebay collection 




23 




36 RUDOLF BAUER 

Lyric-Dramatic (1926) 

Watercolor, tempera and Chinese ink. 19% x 13% 

Rebay collection 




37 RUDOLF BAUER 

Two Counterpoints (1926) 

Watercolor and tempera. 12/2 * 8% 

Rebay collection 




38 RUDOLF BAUER 

Red Square (1926) 

Watercolor, tempera and Chinese ink. 17% x 12/2 

Rebay collection 



24 



39 RUDOLF BAUER 

Fugue (1926) 

Watercolor, tempera and Chinese ink. 19% x 12% 

Rebay collection 




.-■**• 



40 RUDOLF BAUER 

Cornerstone (1926) 

Watercolor, tempera and Chinese ink. 19/2 x 13% 

Rebay collection 




25 



41 RUDOLF BAUER 

Greenpoint (1926-1927) 

Watercolor, tempera and Chinese ink. 17% x 12% 

Rebay collection 





42 RUDOLF BAUER 

Contrast (1926-1930) 

Watercolor, tempera and Chinese ink. 17% x 12 5 /s 

Rebay collection 



SEE PLATE No. 44 ON PAGE 73 



SEE TETRAPTYCHON PLATE ON PAGE 6 



43 RUDOLF BAUER 

Tetraptychon (1926-1930) 

Oil on canvas — each painting 51% x 51% 

44 Scherzo 46 Andante 

45 Allegro 47 Allegretto 



: 




- 



48 RUDOLF BAUER 

Cosmic Pleasures (1927) 

Watercolor, tempera and Chinese ink. 18% x 1 1 Vs 

Rebay collection 




49 RUDOLF BAUER 

In Memory (1927) 

Watercolor, tempera and Chinese ink. 9 7 / B x 12% 

Rebay collection 



50 RUDOLF BAUER 

Fuguetta (1927) 

Watercolor, tempera and Chinese ink. 12% x 8V2 

Rebay collection 




51 RUDOLF BAUER 

Colored Circles (1927) 

Watercolor, tempera and Chinese ink. 19% x 12% 

Rebay collection 






52 RUDOLF BAUER 

Light and Heavy (1928) 

Watercolor, tempera and Chinese ink. 17% x 12/2 



27 



-.* ■ ' 




53 RUDOLF BAUER 

Fugue (1928) 

Watercolor, tempera and Chinese ink. 17% x \7 y /i 

Rebay collection 




54 RUDOLF BAUER 

Andante (1928) 

Watercolor, tempera and Chinese ink. 18% x 12% 

Rebay collection 



i lis v^^^l hbp 

lL ip" 


— '■-■■":. 



55 RUDOLF BAUER 

Curioso (1928) 

Watercolor, tempera, Chinese ink and paper. 20/2 * 14% 

Rebay collection 



28 



56 RUDOLF BAUER 

Cheerful (1929) 

Watercolor, tempera and Chinese ink. 17% x 12/2 




57 RUDOLF BAUER 

Presto (1929) 

Watercolor and Chinese ink. 18% x ll 5 / 8 




29 



58 RUDOLF BAUER 

Great Fugue (1929) 

Watercolor, tempera and Chinese ink. 17% x 12/2 

Rebay collection. 





SEE PLATE ON PAGE 67 





59 RUDOLF BAUER 

(1930-1932) 

Oil on canvas. 51 % x 51 % 



60 RUDOLF BAUER 

Red Circle (1930-1932) 

Oil on canvas. 51 % x 51 % 



61 RUDOLF BAUER 

Yellow and Green (1930-1932) 

Oil on canvas. 51 Vi x 51% 



62 RUDOLF BAUER 

Fugue (1931) 

Watercolor, tempera and Chinese ink. 19% x 12% 



SEE TRYPTICH PLATE ON PAGE 7 



63 64 65 RUDOLF BAUER 

Triptych (1930-1934) 

Oil on canvas — each painting 51% x 61 



30 



66 RUDOLF BAUER 

Pizzicato (1931) 

Watercolor, tempera and Chinese ink. 17% x 12Vi 

Rebay collection 




67 RUDOLF BAUER 

Largo (1931) 

Watercolor, tempera and Chinese ink. 17% x 12/2 

Rebay collection 





mp* 




68 RUDOLF BAUER 
Andante (1931) 
Watercolor. 17% x 12y 2 




69 RUDOLF BAUER 
Andante (1931) 
Watercolor. 17'/ 4 x 12y 2 



SEE PLATE ON PAGE 113 



31 





70 RUDOLF BAUER 

(1930-1932) 

Oil on canvas. 51% x 51% 

Rebay collection 



71 RUDOLF BAUER 

(1931) 

Watercolor, tempera and Chinese ink. 19% x 12% 



SEE PLATE ON PAGE 118 



SEE PLATE ON PAGE 89 



72 RUDOLF BAUER 

(1931) 
Watercolor, tempera and Chinese ink. 17/8 x 12/2 

73 RUDOLF BAUER 
Top Point— Efficiency (1931) 

Oil. 88!/ 2 x 69 




74 RUDOLF BAUER 

(1932) 

Watercolor. 13% x 18% 

Rebay collection 



32 



75 RUDOLF BAUER 

(1933) 

Watercolor, tempera and Chinese ink. 15% x 19V 8 

Rebay collection 





Wfr 



■ ... 



76 RUDOLF BAUER 

(1933) 

Watercolor, tempera and Chinese ink. 18/2 X 17/2 




77 RUDOLF BAUER 

(1933) 

Watercolor, tempera and Chinese ink. 17% x 13/2 

Rebay collection 




78 RUDOLF BAUER 
Blue Balls (1934-1935) 
Oil on canvas. 50% x 50% 



SEE PLATE ON PAGE 75 




79 RUDOLF BAUER 

Balance (1935) 

Oil on canvas. 50% x 50% 



SEE 


PLATE ON 


PAGE 79 


SEE PLATE ON 


PAGE 69 


SEE 


PLATE ON 


PAGE 115 



80 RUDOLF BAUER 
Colored Swinging (1935) 

Oil on canvas. 50% x 60% 

81 RUDOLF BAUER 
Delicacies (1935) 

Oil on canvas. 53% x 35% 

82 RUDOLF BAUER 
(1935) Black and Yellow 

Oil on canvas. 50% x 50% 





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v% % 



83 RUDOLF BAUER 

Scherzo (1936) 

Watercolor. 17 x W/ 2 



SEE PLATE ON 


PAGE 103 


SEE PLATE ON 


PAGE 77 


SEE PLATE ON 


PAGE 71 


SEE PLATE ON PAGE 81 



84 RUDOLF BAUER 

Light Circle (1936) 

Oil. 47% x 47% 



85 



RUDOLF BAUER 

Points (1936) 

Oil. 49y 2 x 41 y 2 



86 RUDOLF BAUER 
Red Triangle (1936) 

Oil. 491/2x411/2 

87 RUDOLF BAUER 
The Holy One (1936) 

Oil. 50 x 50 



34 



88 RUDOLF BAUER 
Three Points (1936) 
Oil. 40 x 75 



SEE PLATE ON PAGE 87 



89 RUDOLF BAUER 
Yellow Accents (1937) 
Oil. 55 x 31 




90 RUDOLF BAUER 
Fugue (1937) 
Oil. 39 x 39 



•• 


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91 RUDOLF BAUER 
Light Fugue (1937) 
Oil. 39 x 46V 2 




35 




wwwwwbh bp— mm 










SEE PLATE ON PAGE 85 


SEE PLATE ON PAGE 83 


SEE PLATE ON PAGE 110 






92 RUDOLF BAUER 

Green Square (1937) 

Oil. 46V 2 x 39 



93 RUDOLF BAUER 

White Circle (1937) 

Oil. 39 x 54 



94 RUDOLF BAUER 
Dark Accents (1937) 

Oil. 39 x 39 

95 RUDOLF BAUER 
Squares (1937) Oil. 60 x 60 

Rebay collection 

96 ROBERT DELAUNAY 

Circular Rhythm 

Oil. 460 x 105 



97 ALBERT GLEIZES 
"Voltige Aerienne" (1917) 
Oil on canvas. 39 3 / 8 x 29% 



36 



98 ALBERT GLEIZES 

(1921) 

Oil on canvas. 35 x 27yi 

Rebay collection 




99 ALBERT GLEIZES 

(1927) 

Tempera. 6V2 x 5 

Rebay collection 




100 ALBERT GLEIZES 
(1927) 

Tempera. 6 x 4/2 
Rebay collection 




*Tl* -\» * •»' 



37 




SEE PLATE ON 


PAGE 116 


SEE 


PLATE 


ON 


PAGE 


106 


SEE 


PLATE 


ON 


PAGE 


91 



101 ALBERT GLEIZES 
Religious Painting (1929) 
Oil on canvas. 78% x 60 

102 ALBERT GLEIZES 
Composition (1930) Oil. 75 x 45 

103 VASILY KANDINSKY 
Improvisation (1912) Oil. 45 x 62y 2 

104 VASILY KANDINSKY 
Light Form (1912) Oil. 47 x 54% 






SEE PLATE ON PAGE 105 


SEE PLATE ON PAGE 107 



105 VASILY KANDINSKY 

Great Fugue (1913) 
Oil. 50y 2 x 5oy 2 

106 VASILY KANDINSKY 
The White Edge (1913) Oil on canvas. 55 x 75y 2 

107 VASILY KANDINSKY 
Light Picture (1913) Oil on canvas. 30% x 39y 4 




108 VASILY KANDINSKY 

Picture with Three Spots (No. 196, 1913) 

Oil on canvas. 47 x 43 



SEE PLATE ON PAGE 93 



109 VASILY KANDINSKY 
Black Lines (1913) Oil on canvas. 50y 2 x 50y 2 



110 VASILY KANDINSKY 

Lyrical Invention 1918 

Tempera and Chinese ink. 10y 8 x 13/2 

Rebay collection 



. -■,, /- 
_ 




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111 VASILY KANDINSKY 

[1918] 

Watercolor. 9% x 13y 2 

Rebay collection 




112 VASILY KANDINSKY 
1922; 
Watercolor. 17% x 16% 




113 VASILY KANDINSKY 
[1922] 

Watercolor. 17^ x 15% 





114 VASILY KANDINSKY 
1923 No. 259 
Oil. 37V 4 x 36 




39 




115 VASILY KANDINSKY 
(1923) 
Watercolor and Chinese ink. 14y 8 x 9% 
Rebay collection 




116 VASILY KANDINSKY 

(1923) 

Watercolor and ink. 16 x 12 

Rebay collection 



SEE PLATE ON PAGE 103 



SEE PLATE ON PAGE 114 



117 VASILY KANDINSKY 
Composition 8 (No. 260, 1923) 

Oil on canvas. 54/2 x 78/2 

118 VASILY KANDINSKY 
Emphasized Corners (No. 247, 1923) 

Oil on canvas. 50% x 50% 
Rebay collection 




119 VASILY KANDINSKY 

White Point (1923) 

Oil No. 248 

Rebay collection 



jf 



120 VASILY KANDINSKY 
(1924) 

Watercolor and Chinese ink. 13V2 x 9% 
Rebay collection 

121 VASILY KANDINSKY 

One Center (1924) Oil. 54y 2 x 38/2 

122 VASILY KANDINSKY 

Above and Left (1925) Oil. 27Y 4 x 19V 2 

123 VASILY KANDINSKY 
Pointed and Round (No. 293, 1935) 
Oil on cardboard. 27V 2 x 19% 



124 VASILY KANDINSKY 
Light Unity (No. 308, 1925) 
Oil on cardboard. 27y 2 x 19/2 



41 



125 VASILY KANDINSKY 
(No. 456, 1929) 

Oil on cardboard. 13% x 9% 
Rebay collection 




SEE 


PLATE 


ON 


PAGE 95 


SEE PLATE ON 


PAGE 99 


SEE 


PLATE 


ON 


PAGE 97 





126 VASILY KANDINSKY 

Confirming (No. 355, 1926) 

Oil on canvas. 17% x 21 




127 VASILY KANDINSKY 

Pointed Accents (No. 342, 1926) 

Oil on canvas. 30% x 49 




128 VASILY KANDINSKY 

Floating (No. 395, 1927) 

Oil on cardboard. 15% x 18% 



SEE PLATE ON PAGE 120 



129 VASILY KANDINSKY 

Glowing Up (No. 327, 1928) 

Watercolor and Chinese ink. 18 x 19% 




130 VASILY KANDINSKY 

Red Staff (1928) 

Oil. 36 x 20 (No. 121) 



42 



131 VASILY KANDINSKY 
Dull Violet (1927) 
Watercolor. 19 x 12% 




132 VASILY KANDINSKY 
"Schichtenweise" (1928) 
Watercolor. 19'/ 8 x 12% 
Rebay collection 



133 VASILY KANDINSKY 
Light and Heavy (No. 457, 1929) 
Oil. 1914 x 19% 



SEE PLATE ON PAGE 119 




134 VASILY KANDINSKY 
For and Against (No. 461, 1929) 
Oil. 133/4 x 19% 



135 VASILY KANDINSKY 
Yellow Center (1929) 
Oil. 18 x 15 
Rebay collection 



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43 




136 VASILY KANDINSKY 

Light Blue (No. 443, 192?) 

Oil on canvas. 20 3 / 4 x 26% 




137 VASILY KANDINSKY 

"Kaum" (No. 492, 1930) 

Tempera on plaster. 13 x 6% 

Rebay collection 




138 VASILY KANDINSKY 

Long Stripe (1930) 

Watercolor. 20 x 15y 2 

Rebay collection 



44 



139 VASIL KANDINSKY 
Three Arrows (1931) 
Watercolor. 18% x 12% 
Rebay collection 




140 VASILY KANDINSKY 
Light Blue (1931) 
Watercolor. 15 x 18% 
Rebay collection 





141 VASILY KANDINSKY 
Dreamlike (1932) 
Watercolor. 20% x 12y 2 
Rebay collection 




142 VASILY KANDINSKY 

Voltige (No. 612, 1935) 

Oil with sand on canvas. 32 x 39 




45 







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• • 

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143 VASILY KANDINSKY 
Green on Green (1932) 
Watercolor. 20y 2 x 12y 2 



144 VASILY KANDINSKY 

Accompanied Contrasts (No. 613, 1935) 

Oil with sand on canvas. 38^ x 64 






145 VASILY KANDINSKY 

Little Balls (No. 555, 1935) 

Watercolor. 18 x 9 



46 



146 VASILY KANDINSKY 
Violet and Orange (1935) 
Oil. 35 x 46 




147 VASILY KANDINSKY 
Grill (1935) 
Tempera. 20 x 12/2 
Rebay collection 




148 VASILY KANDINSKY 
Two Circles (1935) 
Oil. 28y 2 x 35 
Rebay collection 




149 VASILY KANDINSKY 
Accent Vert (No. 623, 1935) 
Oil. 32 x 39'/ 2 




150 VASILY KANDINSKY 
Rigid and Bent (1936) 
Oil. 45 x 64 



SEE PLATE ON PAGE 101 



47 








151 PAUL KLEE 

Inscription (1926) 

Watercolor and Chinese ink. 8% x 5% 

Rebay collection 



152 FERNAND LEGER 

Fugue Composition (1918) 

Watercolor. 13 x 9/2 



153 FERNAND LEGER 

Fugue (1919) 

Watercolor. 1 1 x 9V 2 



SEE PLATE ON PAGE 121 



154 FERNAND LEGER 

Composition (1925) 

Oil on canvas. 50 Vi x 37y 2 



48 



155 FERNAND LEGER 
Composition (1926) 
Watercolor. 11 x 4% 




156 FERNAND LEGER 

(1930) 

Watercolor. 13% x 16y 2 

Rebay collection 




157 FERNAND LEGER 
Composition (1937) 
Oil. 21 x 25 




49 




158 LADISLAUS MOHOLY-NAGY 

T 1 (1926) 

Oil on trollit. 58y 2 x 17 




159 LADISLAUS MOHOLY-NAGY 

(1927) 

Watercolor and Chinese ink. 11 x 15/2 

Rebay collection 




160 LADISLAUS MOHOLY-NAGY 

Tp 3 (1930) 

Oil on trollit. 5% x 11% 

Rebay collection 




161 LADISLAUS MOHOLY-NAGY 

Tp 1 (1930) 

Oil on Trollit. 24 x 563/ 4 



50 



162 LADISLAUS MOHOLY-NAGY 
Tp 2 (1930) 
Oil on Trollit. 24 x 56% 



SEE PLATE ON PAGE 104 



163 OTTO NEBEL 
Triangle (1927) 
Watercolor. 10x8 




164 OTTO NEBEL 
Quintetto (1934) 
Tempera. 15 x 12y 2 




165 OTTO NEBEL 
Nobile (1936) 
Watercolor. 15 x 12y 2 




51 



166 OTTO NEBEL 
Arietta (1936) 
Watercolor. 15 x \7>k 





167 OTTO NEBEL 

Warm (1937) 

Tempera. 16 x 10 




168 OTTO NEBEL 

Lifted (1937) 

Tempera. 15V 2 x lOVi 

Rebay Collection 




169 OTTO NEBEL 

Dreamlike (1937) 

Tempera. 16V2 x 10% 



52 



170 OTTO NEBEL 
Swinging (1937) 
Tempera. I6V2 x 10 




171 OTTO NEBEL 
Enfolded (1937) 
Watercolor. 10 x 16 





172 OTTO NEBEL 
In Between (1937) 
Tempera. 17Y8 x 11% 



MM 



■*■« 




53 




173 BEN NICOLSON 

(1912) 

Oil on wood. 10x11 



174 BEN NICOLSON 

Composition 

Plaster. 6% x 10 

Rebay collection 



SEE PLATE ON PAGE 112 



175 PABLO PICASSO 
Composition (1918) 

Oil. i3y 2 x ioy 2 




176 HILLA REBAY 

Improvisation (1922) 

Paper and watercolor. 11% x 8% 



a 1 




177 HILLA REBAY 

Scherzo (1924) 

Paper and watercolor. ]] } / B x 8% 



54 



178 HILLA REBAY 
Con Brio (1931) 
Watercolor. 9 3 / 8 x 8 3 / 8 



V 










179 HILLA REBAY 

Fugue (1932) 

Paper on Paper. 8x5 




180 HILLA REBAY 

Erect (1937) 

Paper on Paper. 17 x 13V2 




55 




181 SHWAB 

Construction (1928) 

Oil. 193/4 x 35% 



SEE PLATE ON PAGE 111 



182 SHWAB 

Construction II (1928) 

Oil. 21 x 31% 




183 HELENA DA SUVA 

Composition (1936) 

Oil. 41 x 64 




184 GEORGES VALMIER 

Scherzo (1920) 

Watercolor. 5 x 4% 

Rebay collection 




185 GEORGES VALMIER 

Fugue (1920) 

Watercolor. 5x4 



56 



186 GEORGES VALMIER 
Fugue (1920) 
Watercolor. 5 x 6% 




187 GEORGES VALMIER 

Improvisation (1922) 
Watercolor. 10x6% 




188 GEORGES VALMIER 
Fugue (1923) 
Oil. 45 x 28 




57 



189 VORDEMBERGE-GILDEWART 

Composition 96 (1936) 

Oil. 28 x 37 




190 VORDEMBERGE-GILDEWART 

Composition 97 (1936) 

Oil. 28x37 




191 EDWARD WADSWORTH 

Composition (1930) 

Tempera. 24 5 / 8 x 39% 




192 EDWARD WADSWORTH 

Composition (1930) 

Tempera. 24% x 34y 8 



58 



LIST OF REPRESENTATIVE PAINTINGS AND DRAWINGS WITH AN OBJECT INDICATING 

THE HISTORICAL PROGRESS THROUGH IMPRESSIONISM, EXPRESSIONISM, 

CUBISM, ABSTRACTION TO NON-OBJECTIVE ART 



193 RUDOLF BAUER 
Dancing Couple (1908) 
Lithograph. 19x13 
Rebay collection 

194 RUDOLF BAUER 
Dancing Couple (1908) 
Lithograph. 19 x 13 
Rebay collection 

195 RUDOLPH BAUER 
Star Gazers (1911) 
Drawing. 15 x 12/2 
Rebay collection 

196 RUDOLPH BAUER 
Promenade (1909) 
Pastel. 20x13 

Rebay collection 

197 RUDOLPH BAUER 
Maneuvres (1910) 
Watercolor. 13x13 
Rebay collection 

198 RUDOLF BAUER 
Commanding Officers (1910) 
Watercolor. 13x13 
Rebay collection 

199 RUDOLF BAUER 
Football (1910) 

Ink and Tempera. 19 x 13 
Rebay collection 

200 RUDOLF BAUER 
Flower Offer 
Drawing. 1 8 x 1 1 y 2 
Rebay collection 

201 RUDOLPH BAUER 
Skijoring 

Drawing. 18x11/2 
Rebay collection 

202 RUDOLF BAUER 
Tennis Player, Girl 
Drawing. 1 1 x 8V2 
Rebay collection 

203 RUDOLF BAUER 
Tennis Player, Boy 
Drawing. 1 1 x 8I/2 
Rebay collection 

204 RUDOLPH BAUER 
Dancers 

Lithograph. 18x12/2 
Rebay collection 



205 RUDOLF BAUER 
Interview 
Drawing. 18 x 12 
Rebay collection 

206 RUDOLF BAUER 
Lovers 

Drawing. 18 x 12 
Rebay collection 

207 RUDOLF BAUER 
Abstraction (1911) 
Drawing. 18 x 12 
Rebay collection 

208 RUDOLF BAUER 
Woman Seated 
Drawing. 11 Vi x9 
Rebay collection 

208a RUDOLF BAUER 
Simplicity (1910) 
Pencil. I41/2 x 10 
Rebay collection 

208b RUDOLF BAUER 
Cubistic Nude (1911) 
Lithograph. 9 x 3Yi 
Rebay collection 

208c RUDOLF BAUER 
Two Figures 
Pen and Ink. 12 x 5y 2 
Rebay collection 

208d RUDOLF BAUER 
Cubic Composition (1911) 
Pen and Ink. 11% x 6% 
Rebay collection 

209 HEINRICH CAMPENDONK 
Saturday (1918) 

Watercolor. 16% xl8y 8 

210 MARC CHAGALL 
I and the Village (1911) 
Watercolor. 11% x 8% 
Rebay collection 

211 MARC CHAGALL 
Quarrel (1912) 
Watercolor. 11% x8/2 
Rebay collection 

212 MARC CHAGALL 
Menageries (1912) 
Watercolor. 12% x6V 2 

213 MARC CHAGALL 

Paris through the Window (1913) 
Oil on canvas. 52% x 54% 



59 



PAINTINGS WITH AN OBJECT 



214 MARC CHAGALL 
The Remembrance (1914) 
Watercolor. 6y 2 xl3y2 
Rebay collection 

215 MARC CHAGALL 
Pleasure of Life (1914) 
Oil. 34x22 

Rebay collection 

216 MARC CHAGALL 
The Tomb (1914) 

Etching and Watercolor. 4x9 
Rebay collection 

217 MARC CHAGALL 
Birthday (1915) 
Oil.3iy 2 x31 3 / 4 

218 MARC CHAGALL 
Night (1917) 
Oil.6x9 

Rebay collection 

219 MARC CHAGALL 

Flying Carriage (1918) 
Watercolor. 7 x 9/2 
Rebay collection 

220 MARC CHAGALL 
The Green Violinist (1918) 
Oil. 77x42/2 

221 MARC CHAGALL 
The Dream. (1920) 
Watercolor. 12y 2 x 17 
Rebay collection 

222 MARC CHAGALL 
Family Portrait (1922) 
Watercolor. 8x 10. 
Rebay collection 

223 MARC CHAGALL 
Festival (1922) 

Etching and watercolor. 10x7 
Rebay collec ion 

224 MARC CHAGALL 
Love pleasure (1925) 
Drawing. 10 x 12 
Rebay collection 

225 MARC CHAGALL 
The Pink Seat (1930) 
Oil. 28y 2 x 23 

226 MARC CHAGALL 
In the Snow (1930) 
Watercolor. 13 x 9y 2 
Rebay collection 

227 MARC CHAGALL 
Country Fete (1930-1932) 

Illustration for "The Fables of La Fontaine" 
Gouache. 19% x 2434 



228 MARC CHAGALL 
The Village Street (1931) 
Oil. 15x 18 

229 MARC CHAGALL 
My Native House (1935) 
Oil. 45/2 x 341/2 

230 MARC CHAGALL 
The Lovers (1935-1936) 
Oil. 2iy 2 x 15 

Rebay collection 

231 ROBERT DELAUNAY 

Eiffel Tower (1910) 

Oil on canvas. 77 2 U x 53 

232 ROBERT DELAUNAY 

Windows (1912) 
Oil. 21 y 2 x 18 
Rebay collection 

233 LYONAL FEININGER 
West deep (1932) 

Ink and watercolor. 1 1 % x 17 
Rebay collection 

234 LYONAL FEININGER 
Sardine Fisherman (1933) 
Watercolor. 11 x 19 

235 LYONAL FEININGER 
Composition I (1933) 
Watercolor. 6x11 

236 LYONAL FEININGER 
Fourmasted Schooner (1934) 
Watercolor. 24y 4 x 15% 

237 LYONAL FEININGER 
Ship Under Sail II (1935) 

oil. 17 x ioy 2 

238 ALBERT GLEIZES 

Portrait of a Military Doctor (1914) 
Oil. 37 x 40 

239 ALBERT GLEIZES 

Spanish Dancer (1916) 
Oil on canvas. 39y 4 x 29% 

240 ALBERT GLEIZES 
Three Themes (1916) 
Tempera. 7/8 x 5% 

241 ALBERT GLEIZES 

Equilibrium Variations (1916) 
Oil. 37 x 47 

242 ALBERT GLEIZES 
On Brooklyn Bridge (1917) 
Oil. 64 x 50y 2 

243 ALBERT GLEIZES 

No. 48 on Singer in Music Hall (1917) 
Oil. 40 x 30 
Rebay collection 



60 



PAINTINGS WITH AN OBJECT 



244 ALBERT GLEIZES 
Herein Port (1917) 
Oil. 60x47 

245 ALBERT GLEIZES 
Acrobats (1917) 

Oil. 47 x 38% 

246 ALBERT GLEIZES 
Abstraction of Equestrian (1916) 
Oil. 39V2 x 291/4 

247 VASILY KANDINSKY 
Winter study with Church (1911) 
Oil. I71/4 x I21/2 

248 PAUL KLEE 
Lightning (1920) 
Watercolor.il 1/2 x 7% 

249 PAUL KLEE 

Hut on Mountain (1922) 
Watercolor.2iy 2 xl8i/4 

250 PAUL KLEE 
Tropical Culture (1923) 
Watercolor. 19x8 

251 PAUL KLEE 

The end of the Marionette (1927) 
Watercolor and ink. 12% x 18 

252 PAUL KLEE 
"Erinneraedchen" (1929) 
Watercolor and ink. 12 x 14% 

253 FERNAND LEGER 
Composition (1918) 
Watercolor. 13x9% 

254 FERNAND LEGER 
Composition (1920) 
Watercolor. 7% x 8% 

255 FERNAND LEGER 
Composition (1926) 
Watercolor. 11 x 4% 

256 FRANZ MARC 
Black Wolves (1913) 
Watercolor. 17x14% 

257 AMEDEO MODIGLIANI 
The Boy in the Blue Vest 
Oil on canvas. 361/2 x 24yi 

258 AMEDEO MODIGLIANI 
The Yellow Sweater 

Oil on canvas. 25y 2 x 36% 

259 AMEDEO MODIGLIANI 
Portrait of Beatrice Hastings 
Drawing. 12x7% 

Rebay collection 



260 PABLO PICASSO 
Fruit Bowl (1908) 

Oil. 25% x 28% 

261 PABLO PICASSO 
Pierrot (1911) 

Oil. 50 x 34 

262 PABLO PICASSO 
Landscape Seret (1914) 

oil. 451/2x193/4 

263 PABLO PICASSO 
Abstraction (1918) 

Oil. 14x11 

264 PABLO PICASSO 
Lemon (1927) 

Oil. 7 x 5% 

265 HILLA REBAY 
The Tiger Cat (1933) 
Paper. 16% xl3V 8 

266 HILLA REBAY 
Relaxation (1924) 

Paper and watercolor. 16% x 13% 

267 GEORGES-PIERRE SEURAT 
The Ape (1884) 

Study for "Grande Jatte" 
Pencil drawing. 7% x 6Ve 

268 GEORGES-PIERRE SEURAT 
(1885) 

Drawing. 11% x 9 

269 GEORGES-PIERRE SEURAT 
(1887) 

Drawing. 8% x liy 2 

270 GEORGES-PIERRE SEURAT 
Drawing. 9% x 12% 

271 GEORGES-PIERRE SEURAT 
Peasant Woman (c. 1883) 

Oil on canvas. 15 x 18 

272 GEORGES-PIERRE SEURAT 
The Door (1888) 

Pencil Drawing. 1 1 % x 8% 

273 GEORGES-PIERRE SEURAT 
Bending Soldier (1881-1882) 
Drawing. 6% x 4y 8 

Rebay collection 

274 GEORGES VALMIER 
Still Life (1925) 

Oil. 22 x 28 

275 GEORGES VALMIER 
Still Life (1930) 
Watercolor. 4x7 



61 



BIOGRAPHIES 

BAUER, Rudolf. Born in Lindenwald, Germany, 1889. At the age of twelve he worked as a 
cartoonist. For a short time he studied at the Academy of Fine Arts in Berlin. He became 
famous in Europe as a designer for humorous publications. Later known for his caricatures 
and for his work in Academism, Impressionism, Expressionism and Cubism, finally developing 
to Non-objective art, of which he is an outstanding exponent. He exhibited his paintings as a 
member of the "Sturm" and Glasspalast in Berlin, 1915-1919, and also in Japan, Holland, 
Denmark, Sweden, Italy and Switzerland and many other countries from 1915 to 1920. He 
became a member of the "Krater" in 1921. In 1927 he exhibited in the Kgl. Schloss, Berlin. In 
1929 he founded the Geistreich, a private museum of Non-objectivity in Berlin. Bauer has 
lectured in several German universities and museums, and for the "Volks Buehne," Berlin. 
He usually refuses invitations for one-man exhibitions, as in Rome and Milan, to have been 
sponsored by Marinetti, and also in Vienna and Paris. He is the author of "Die Kosmische 
Bewegung" in "Expressionismus die Kunstwende," Berlin, 1918; "Manifest der Malerei," 
Berlin; 1921; "Das Geistreich," Berlin, 1931; and "Eppur si muove," Berlin, 1935. He lives in 
Berlin, where he shows Non-objective art in the Heerstrasse to the public. 

CAMPENDONK, Heinrich. Born in Krefeld in 1889, where he studied with Prikker. From 1911 
to 1914 he lived in Sindelsdorf. He has worked with Franz Marc and Kandinsky. He exhibited 
at the "Blauer Reiter" exhibition in Munich in 1912. He lived in Seeshaupt from 1916 to 1933 
and during that time taught at the Academy of Dusseldorf. He is at present a teacher at the 
Ryksakademie in Amsterdam. 

CHAGALL, Marc. Born in Vitebsk, Russia, 1887. He first began painting in 1907, studying 
under Bakst in Saint Petersburg. He came to Paris in 1910, where he exhibited in the Salon 
des Independents, 1911-1914. In 1913 he executed a mural painting for the Jewish theatre in 
Moscow. His first one-man show was organized by the "Sturm" in Berlin, during the spring of 
1914. In the same year he returned to Russia, living there until 1922. He founded the Beaux 
Arts School in Vitebsk. He returned to Paris in 1929. His paintings were recently exhibited in 
Basel, Switzerland, in 1931, and in London in 1935, in important one-man exhibitions. Among 
the books he has illustrated are "Dead Souls," by Gogol, and "The Fables of La Fontaine" 
(Editions Vollard). He lives in Paris. 

DELAUNAY, Robert. Born in Paris, 1882. His paintings first were exhibited in the Salon des 
Independents in 1908. He took an important part in the Cubist movement and again ex- 
hibited with the Independents in 1911. His first cubistic pictures, the "Eiffel Tower" and "St. 
Severin," were painted in 1910; "Les Fenetres," in 1912. His illustrations for books include 
those for the poems of Apollinaire and of Blaise Cendrars, "Transsiberian," by B. Huidobro, 
and "Alio, Paris!", by Joseph Delteil (Editions des Quatre Chemins). He lives in Paris. 

FEININGER, Lyonal. Born in New York, 1871. Went to Hamburg, Germany, in 1888 to study 
music, but decided to study painting at the Royal Academy in Berlin. From 1895 to 1900, he 
worked like Bauer as a cartoonist for the Lustige Blaetter, Berlin. He exhibited in the Glass- 
palast in 1904, and in 1910 at the Berlin Secession. He later taught Cubism at the Bauhaus 
in Weimar until 1926 and at Dessau Bauhaus until 1933. A great exhibition of all his works 
was held at the Crown Prince Palace, Berlin, in 1931. He still is a musician and sometimes 

62 



composes. Except for one year in Paris and a short period of teaching at Mills College in the 
United States, he lived in Berlin until 1936 and now in New York. 

GLEIZES, Albert. Born in Paris, 1881. His paintings have been exhibited in Paris at the Societe 
Nationale des Beaux Arts in 1902 and 1907; at the Salon d'Automne in 1903, 1905 and 1910; 
at the Salon des Independents since 1909; and at the Salon des Tuileries since its founding. 
He took part in the first Cubistic movement in 1911 and was one of the founders of the Salon 
de la Section d'Or in 1912, as well as a member of the "Sturm," Berlin. Since 1916 most of his 
paintings can be termed abstract and some are Non-objective. Gleizes is also a lecturer 
and writer. His published works include: Du Cubisme," in collaboration with Jean Metz- 
inger, Paris, 1912; "Du Cubisme et des moyens de le comprendre," Paris, 1920; "La Mission 
creatrice de I'Homme dans le domaine plastique," Paris, 1922; and "Vers une conscience 
plastique," articles and lectures from 1911 to 1925, Paris, 1926. He has illustrated "Le Bocage 
amoureux," by Roger Allard; "La Conque miraculeuse," by Alexander Mercereau; and "Au 
pays du muftie," by Laurent Tailhade. He lives in Moly Sabata, France. 

KANDINSKY, Vasily. Born in Moscow, Russia, 1866. When he was eighteen he graduated in 
law and economics. In 1910 he was asked to teach at the University of Dorpat. Instead 
of accepting he went to Munich to study art at the Azbe School, later studying with Stuck. 
From 1902 to 1903 he conducted an art school and then traveled until 1908. He lived 
in Munich until 1912. His first Non-objective painting was completed in 1911. In 1912 he 
founded the group of "Blauer Reiter" and published a book with the same title. He painted 
a scenic composition, "Le Son jaune," in 1912 and "Klaenge" in 1913. His words were ex- 
hibited in the Berlin "Automne Salon" in 1914 and in the "Sturm," Berlin, 1913-1918. Later in 
most all important cities. He returned to Russia in 1914. He was a professor at the Beaux Arts 
School and director of the museum of Pictorial Culture at Moscow in 1919. He established the 
Institute of Artistic Culture and was a professor at the University of Moscow in 1920. In 1921 
he founded the Russian Academy of Arts and Sciences. He returned to Germany as a teacher 
at the Bauhaus in Weimar in 1922, later teaching at Dessau until 1933. His books include: 
"Uber das Geistige in der Kunst," Munich, 1912 (English edition, London, 1914); "Der Blaue 
Reiter," edited by Kandinsky and Franz Marc, Munich, 1912; "Kandinsky, 1901-1913," Berlin, 
1913; "Kleine Welten," Berlin, 1922; and "Punkt und Linie zu Flaeche," Munich, 1926. He 
lives in Paris. 

KLEE, Paul. Born in Berne, Switzerland, 1879. He studied at the Academy of Munich with 
Franz Stuck in 1898. He traveled through Italy and then made his home in Berne from 1903 
until 1906. His first exhibit, shown in 1910, was unsuccessful, but after he attracted great at- 
tention in the exhibiton of "Blauer Reiter," of which he was a member in 1912 and at the 
"Automne Salon" in Berlin, 1913. He also exhibited as a member of the "Sturm." In 1919 he 
was a teacher at Bauhaus in Weimar, and later at Dessau; until 1932 he was a teacher at the 
Academy in Dusseldorf. His works have been shown all over the world. They are abstrac- 
tions with objective inspirations and all its short-comings, though very attractive in colorful 
charm. He very seldom achieves Non-objective art and the serenity of free creation. 
LEGER, Fernand. Born in Argentan, France, 1881. For a short time he studied architecture at 
the Ecole des Beaux Arts in 1901. He worked at first as an architectural draftsman and a 
photographic retoucher. Then he began painting and, although influenced by the works of 
Cezanne, Rousseau and the Cubist movement, he developed a very strong style of abstrac- 

63 



tion, usually using an object but occasionally painting Non-objective decorations. His paint- 
ings were first exhibited at the Berlin "Automne Salon," 1914, and later at the "Sturm," Berlin, 
1914-1919. He designed settings for "Skating Rink" and "Birth of the World," and for the 
Swedish ballets organized by Rolf de Mare and Jean Berlin. He now directs an art school 
with A. Ozenfant. He has had exhibitions all over the world and his works hang in many mod- 
ern collections. He lives in Paris. 

MARC, Franz. Born in Ried, upper Bavaria, 1880. He studied at the Munich Academy from 1900 
to 1903. In 1902 he traveled in Italy and in 1903 he went to Paris where he stayed six months. 
He lived in Munich from 1904 to 1905. In 1909 he visited Greece, leaving there again to visit 
Paris and Berlin in 1907. From 1907 to 1914 he lived in Sindelsdorf, Bavaria. He was a mem- 
ber of the "Blauer Reiter" group and developed from Academism to Cubism as a great 
painter of animal life. His most important work is "Tierschiksale." He was killed at Verdun, 
March 4th, 1916. 

MODIGLIANI, Amedeo. Born in Livorno, Italy, 1884, died in Paris, 1920. He was both a 
painter and a sculptor. After studying the old masters in Naples, Florence and Venice, he 
arrived in Paris in 1905. His work was exhibited at the Salon des Independents in 1908-1910, 
and at the salon d'Automne, Paris, 1919-1920. He was influenced by the Italian Primitives and 
African Sculpture. Many of his portraits were those of his friends. His life in Paris was one of 
poverty, illness and disillusionment. He died of consumption at the age of thirty-five. 

MOHOLY-NAGY, Ladislaus. Born in Hungary, 1895. From legal studies he turned to photo- 
graphic and applied art and painting in 1915. He was a member of the staff of the Bauhaus 
at Weimar, and later at Dessau. In 1929 he went to Berlin where he worked in abstract films, 
stage settings, photography, writing and painting. His paintings have been exhibited in Berlin 
and Paris. His writings include "Malerei, Fotographie, Film," Munich, 1925; "The New Vision," 
New York, 1933; and "Sonderausgabe der Zeitschrift Telehor," 1933-1935. He lived in Lon- 
don and, since 1937, in Chicago. 

NEBEL, Otto. Born in Berlin, Germany, 1892. Painter, poet, and writer on art. He studied 
architecture from 1913 to 1918. Started Non-objective painting in 1910. He became a member 
of the "Sturm" in 1919, and in 1920 of the "Krater" in Berlin. He lives in Switzerland and Italy. 

NICOLSON, Ben. Born in Denham, England, 1894. Does work mostly in relief but some- 
times also paints. From 1925 to 1936 he was a member of 7 and 5, in London, and from 1933 
a member of "Unit One." He lives in London. 

PICASSO, Pablo. Born in Malaga, Spain, 1881 . Began to paint early in La Ceruna as the pupil 
of his father. He later studied in the Academy of Barcelona, from where he visited Paris in 
1900. He has lived in Paris since 1903. His first studies of space problems were made in 1907 
and his first Cubistic landscapes were painted in 1908. His period of importance is that of pure 
Cubism from 1911 to 1914. Since 1914 he works in many styles, Academic, Impressionistic, 
Expressionistic and Surrealistic, usually inspired by works or ideas of other artists. His recent 
works are mere decorations. He has seldom achieved Non-objectivity. 

REBAY, von Ehrenwiesen, Hilla. Born at Strasburg, Alsace. She studied at Dusseldorf, the 
Paris Academy and the Munich Academy. Her paintings were exhibited at the Wallraf 

64 



Museum in Cologne in 1914; at the Secession in Munich, 1914-1915; at the Salon des Inde- 
pendents in Paris in 1913; at the Freie Secession in Berlin, 1915; and at the "Sturm" in 1917. 
She was a member of the November Gruppe in 1918, and in 1920 a member of the "Krater." 
Exhibited at the Salon des Tuileries and Salon d'Automne, Paris, 1932-1933. She exhibited 
her paintings in several French and American museums and galleries, also in Italy and Switz- 
erland. Her work is represented in many international collections. It has developed from 
Academism through Impressionism, Expressionism and Cubism to Non-objective painting. 
She lives in Paris and New York. 

SEURAT, Georges-Pierre. Born in Paris, 1859. He studied at the Ecole des Beaux Arts from 
1875 to 1880. He painted in Paris from 1880 until his death. An indefatigable worker, he 
sold only one painting during his lifetime. Not until years after his death was his work ap- 
preciated. Seurat was the first cubist and his works are much stronger in detail of space per- 
fection than those of Cezanne. If Seurat had lived as long as Cezanne, he would have 
become a great Non-objective creator, as his work already indicated the control and bal- 
ance of rhythm. He died at the age of thirty-one. 

SHWAB. No information regarding his birth or other data is available concerning this 
young, but great master of Non-objective painting. He lives in isolation in Switzerland where 
he was born. 

DA SILVA, Vieira. Born in Lisbon, studied and lives in Paris. 

VALMIER, Georges. Born 1885 in Angouleme. He studied in Paris at the Beaux Arts Academy 
in 1905; later he worked alone in Paris until 1914; served in the World War until 1919; ex- 
hibited in Paris in 1921 in the gallery "L'Effort Moderne." He created the stage settings for 
eighteen futuristic plays written by Marinetti, and for others by Jules Romain, and Georges 
Pillement in Paris, and Bohn's Ballet Russe in Chicago. He was a fine musician and made 
his living as a church singer. He died in Paris, March 25th, 1937. His latest works are three 
big panels, ordered by the French State for the railroad exhibit in the Paris World's Fair 
of 1937. 

VORDEMBERGE-GILDEWART, F. Born 1899, Osnabrueck, Germany. He studied technics, 
architecture, and sculpture in Hanover; in 1919 joined the Dadaist group with its intention to 
upset the public in its unmovable viewpoints on art. He created Non-objective films in 1920; 
exhibited paintings as well as works of absolute forms in metal and glass at the "Sturm" from 
1923 to 1924; left Hanover 1936 to live in Berlin. His work is represented in collections in Paris, 
Basle, Zurich, and Rome. He was a member of the "Sturm" in 1923, "Style" in 1924, and "Ab- 
straction Creation" in Paris. In 1931 he was the German representative to the "Congres pre- 
paratoire du musee contemporain" in La Sarraz, Switzerland. He has been living in Switzer- 
land since 1937. 

WADSWORTH, Edward. Born in Cheakheaton, England, 1889. When Cubism appeared in 
England in 1910 he was prepared to understand and appreciate it. He made his debut in the 
Vorticist movement started by Wyndham Lewis, the first to import Cubism into England. His 
first one-man show was at the Leiscester Galleries in 1919. He is a member of "Unit One," a 
group of eleven English artists with mutual sympathies. He lives in England. 

65 



RUDOLF BAUER, No. 60, "RED CIRCLE" 



66 




67 



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RUDOLF BAUER, No. 86, "RED TRIANGLE" 



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